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  • Welcome to the online home of the Oman Medical Journal offering free access and publishing to all authors and researchers 

    Welcome from the Editor-in-Chief

    Prof. Ibrahim Al-Zakwani BSc, MSc, MS, PhD

    Welcome to the home of the Oman Medical Journal. The OMJ was established in 1984 and has been published under the Oman Medical Specialty Board since 2007. Initially, we started with one issue a year, which later increased to four and then to six in 2011. We currently publish over 100 articles a year covering all aspects of medicine and healthcare. These are selected by our committed and multi-disciplinary Editorial Board.

    We take a no barriers approach to publishing and are proud to offer the journal free to all those who wish to read it and charge no publication fees to authors/researchers. We publish a wide range of articles, including original research, case reports, and preliminary studies. We also publish editorials and letters intended to inform and spark debate about key medical issues. We do this to complement OMSB’s mission to provide quality healthcare through quality medical education. As part of this commitment, we are listed and indexed in over 35 databases, and this number continues to grow.

    We have added some exciting new features to this website. We now offer our authors the opportunity to publish their articles as soon as they are accepted with our preprint facility.  

    On behalf of the entire OMJ team, thank you for visiting the online home of the OMJ. We hope you will find this site to be a helpful resource. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions, concerns, or comments you have.

    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani

    Articles and Issues


    Most Viewed Articles

    The most viewed articles from the OMJ.
    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health Among Healthcare Workers in India: A Mixed-methods Systematic Review

    Edlin Glane Mathias, Anupama D. S., Tenzin Phagdol, Baby S. Nayak, Ravishankar Nagaraja, Kelly Dickson, Mukdarut Bangpan, Gopichandran Lakshmanan

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced significant mental health challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This review aimed to comprehensively assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of HCWs in India. We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review, which adopts a results-based convergent approach that incorporates quantitative and qualitative data. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in relevant databases: PubMed-Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, and ProQuest. All available full-text studies in the English language that assessed the mental health outcomes (anxiety, stress, and depression) of HCWs during the pandemic and published until 28 February 2022 were included. A total of 31 studies were included in this review (27 quantitative studies, three qualitative studies, and one mixed-method study). The pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among HCWs in India was 32.96%, 29.49%, and 33.47%, respectively. Integration of quantitative and qualitative findings using social determinants of health framework resulted in various contributing factors and coping strategies. There is a need for a supportive work environment, mental health support, and mental health policies for HCWs in India.

    Article history:

    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Comparing Opioid with Opioid-free Anesthesia Technique in Neonates Undergoing Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair

    Maria Paul, Charu Bamba, Vinay V., Bhavya Krishna, Bharani Kumar B.

    Objectives: Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a congenital disorder that presents as a surgical emergency in neonates. In regions where neonatal intensive care unit facilities and resources are inadequate and skilled personnel are scarce, not extubating neonates on table, contributes to mortality. Our aim was to assess and compare the on-table extubation rate, extubation time, and postoperative pain scores between opioid and opioid-free anesthesia techniques in neonates undergoing surgical repair of TEF. Methods: We conducted a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial over 18 months between January 2021 and June 2022 in Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi on 60 full-term neonates scheduled for TEF surgeries randomly allocated to two groups according to the mode of analgesia administered. Group O were given fentanyl injection 1 µg/kg intravenous (IV) loading dose with IV injection. acetaminophen at 7.5 mg/kg and top-up of 0.25 µg/kg fentanyl IV si opus sit. Group NO were given pre-surgical local infiltration and intercostal block with 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine, respectively, with IV acetaminophen at 7.5 mg/kg. Results: Mean age in days, gender distribution, and weight in both groups were statistically comparable. The difference in the number of neonates extubated on table was statistically significant (p = 0.002) in group NO compared to group O. Lower mean extubation time was seen in group NO (9.0 min 40.0 secs±3.0 min 3.0 secs) compared to group O (16.0 min 45.0 secs±8.0 min 5.0 secs) (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant (p = 0.010) lower Neonatal Infant Pain Scale score in group NO with mean and SD as 1.8±0.8 compared with group O, 2.5±1.1 at 90 min. Conclusions: In neonates undergoing TEF repair, opioid-free anesthesia is a safe and effective method, providing a better extubation rate, faster time to extubation, and better postoperative pain control.

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    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Immunohistochemical and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Invasive Breast Carcinoma in Nigeria

    Rasheed Mumini Wemimo, Uchechukwu Brian Eziagu, Olayide Agodirin Sulaiman, Afolayan Enoch Abiodun, Najeem Adedamola Idowu, Abdulmajeed Abdulrafiu Ayinde, Adegboye Adeyemi Taiwo

    Objectives: We aimed to study the immunohistochemical and clinicopathological characteristics of invasive breast carcinoma among Nigerian women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective assessment of female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria between 2012 and 2019. Archived pathology request forms and processed specimens (tissue blocks and slides) were used as source data in addition to the patients’ demographic and other relevant data. Results: Reports pertaining to 113 patients were assessed. Their age range was 30 to 80 years (mean = 52.1±12.1 years). Breast carcinoma was most common in patients aged 40 to 49 years (32.7%), closely followed by those aged 50 to 59 years (30.1%). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histopathological subtype (94.7%). Nottingham grade III and grade II breast carcinoma accounted for 41.6% and 40.7% of the cases, respectively. Mastectomy specimens formed 68.1% of the samples. The most common tumor size (75.9%) was > 5cm (mean = 6.8±3.2cm), consistent with the most common staging of T3 (46.0%). The most common lymph node involvement was N1 (56.6%). Immunohistochemical assessment of these tumors with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) biomarkers expressed positivity of 36.3%, 28.3%, and 41.6%, respectively. These tumors were immunohistochemically classified into luminal A (16.8%), luminal B (20.4%), HER-2 enriched (20.4%), and triple-negative (42.5%) subtypes. Conclusions: The most common immunohistochemical subtype of invasive breast carcinoma among this sample of Nigerian women was the triple-negative subtype, similar to the finding among African Americans.

    Article history:

    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    The World Health Organization Body Mass Index Curves for Iranian Children

    Munn-Sann Lye, Mehran Zarghami, Fatemeh Abdollahi

    Article history:

    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Effectiveness of Ultrasound-guided versus Anatomical Landmark-guided Genicular Nerve Block to Treat Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Sarbhjit Singh, Sarbhan Singh, Maniventhan Nachimuthu, Ahmad Fauzey Kassim, Avreena Kaur Bhullar, Rajkumar Veerakumaran, Goh Ni Kol, Nurul Azreen Mohd Roslan

    Objectives: There is limited data on the relative effectiveness of different techniques used for administering genicular nerve block (GNB) for pain management of chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the Malaysian population. This study aims to determine and compare the effectiveness of GNB administered using two pain management techniques—anatomical landmark-guided (ALG) and ultrasound-guided (USG)—for chronic knee OA in this population. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 40 patients with chronic knee OA who received GNB, 20 of whom underwent treatment with the USG technique and the other 20 with the ALG technique. Pain, stiffness, and functional limitation scores were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index Questionnaire (WOMAC) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) at baseline and post-treatment day one, three weeks, and six weeks. Results: Both groups reported a significant reduction in WOMAC and NRS-11 scores as per their feedback on day one, three weeks, and six weeks post-treatment. Greater reductions in WOMAC and NRS-11 scores were reported by patients who received GNB via USG than by ALG technique, the difference achieving statistical significance at six weeks after treatment (p = 0.026). Conclusions: GNB administration using USG and ALG techniques are both effective in significantly reducing pain, stiffness, and functional limitation in patients suffering from chronic knee OA. Among the two techniques, USG appears to be more effective. Nevertheless, GNB guided by ALG continues to be a viable treatment modality, especially in healthcare settings with limited to no USG facilities.

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    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Cluster of Differentiation 38 Protein Significantly Adds to the Prognostic Value of Cytogenetic Risk in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Waiel M. A. AlKahiry, Hadeel S. T. Abdelsalam, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhadi

    Objectives: There is some controversy regarding the clinical significance of cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We aimed to study the prognostic value of CD38 expression in relation to the standard cytogenetic risk stratification in AML patients. Methods: In this prospective study, adult patients with AML were diagnosed based on the finding of ≥ 20% blasts in the bone marrow and the flow cytometry. The control group was selected from normal bone marrow samples examined at the same period in the lab. The CD38 expression levels were assessed by immunophenotyping the bone marrow samples of the patients prior to therapy, as well as those from the controls. Results: The subjects were N = 52 newly diagnosed adult AML patients, while n = 25 sex-and-age matched normal volunteers served as the control. The CD38 expression among AML patients ranged from 3.6% to 79.9%, significantly higher levels than in the control population (p = 0.001). Positive CD38 expression was higher in AML patients with favorable cytogenetics when compared to those with intermediate and poor cytogenetics (75.0%, 57.1%, and 68.2%, respectively) (p = 0.007). Median CD38 expression in AML patients was higher in the favorable cytogenetic group and lower in intermediate and poor cytogenetic groups, though lacking in significance (p = 0.578). Patients with poor cytogenetic risk were associated with significantly shorter median overall survival when compared to favorable and intermediate cytogenetic risk (p = 0.010). Conclusions: The expression of CD38 significantly adds to the prognostic value of cytogenetic risk stratification at diagnosis of AML patients.

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    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Gender-specific Reference Range for Serum Leptin in Omani Population

    Fahad Zadjali, Baraea Al Farsi, Razan Zadjali, Riad A. Bayoumi, Sulayma Al Barwani, Saeed Al-Yahyaee

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone that contributes to glucose homeostasis and food intake regulation via its action on the hypothalamus. Leptin level increases with obesity and overfeeding and decreases with energy deficiency. Serum leptin levels vary between different ethnic groups with no reports of its reference range in the Arabic population. We sought to determine gender-specific reference ranges for serum leptin in a cohort of the Arabic population and identify the cut-off value for different metabolic derangements. Methods: The study data were obtained from the records of 1198 subjects included in the Oman Family Study. The percentile method was used in the estimation reference range and the receiver operating characteristic to identify cut-off points for multiple metabolic derangements. Results: The reference range of serum leptin was 0.5–90.6 ng/mL, and it was not correlated with the age of the subjects. Higher leptin was observed in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and the reference range for serum leptin in females was 4.9–96.3 ng/mL compared to 0.25–48.8 ng/mL in males. The optimum cut-off value for leptin ranged between 24.1–28.9 ng/mL for metabolic syndrome, obesity, central obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: We identified gender-specific reference ranges for serum leptin in a large cohort of Arabs. The optimum cut-off value for serum leptin to determine metabolic derangement with the highest sensitivity and specificity was 24.1–28.9 ng/mL. Future studies are needed to study the relative risk of higher serum leptin using prospective studies.

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    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: A Double- edged Sword or a Pandora’s Box?

    Masoud Kashoub, Mariya Al Abdali, Emaad Al Shibli, Hajer Al Hamrashdi, Salim Al Busaidi, Mohamed Al Rawahi, Sara Al Rasbi, Abdullah Al Alawi

    Article history:

    Volume 38, Issue 5 September 2023
    Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6- phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Oman

    Ammar Al-Sheryani, Hajer Al-Gheithi, Muntadhar Al Moosawi, Shaoib Al-Zadjali, Yasser Wali, Murtadha Al-Khabori

    Objectives: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most encountered abnormality of red blood cell metabolism worldwide and has a high prevalence in Oman. The objective of the study was to characterize the mutation variants of G6PD deficiency in a cohort of the Omani population with partial and complete enzyme deficiency. Methods: This prospective study included newborns and children less than one year of age with partial or complete G6PD enzyme deficiency identified on routine screening using a fluorescent spot test from 31 January 2017 to 12 September 2017 in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The identified samples were analyzed for the presence of C563T, G1003A, and other mutations using direct DNA sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Out of 3679 newborn samples screened, 21.0% were found to have complete or partial G6PD enzyme deficiency. A total of 145 participants were included in the genetic analysis, of which 133 (91.7%) were completely deficient in G6PD enzyme activity and 12 (8.3%) had partial deficiency. The Mediterranean variant (C563T) was identified in 129 (89.0%). Other variants were found as follows: eight (5.5%) had variant A-, three (2.1%) had the Chatham variant (G1003A), one (0.7%) had the Cosenza variant, and one (0.7%) had exon 11 variant. No mutation was found in two subjects. Conclusions: The most common mutation in the Omani population is the Mediterranean mutation (C563T) followed by the variant A- mutation. However, not all participants were found to have a mutation.

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    For Authors

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    The Journal has specific instructions and guidelines for submitting articles. Please read and review them carefully. Articles that are not submitted in accordance with our instructions and guidelines are more likely to be rejected.

    About OMJ

    "Oman Medical Journal is an Open Access International Journal, which intends to engage and inform doctors, researchers and other health professionals by publishing a wide range of peer-reviewed articles."

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