Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its incidence and risk factor patterns vary widely across different diabetic populations. This study aims to assess the incidence and risk factor patterns of CVD events among Omanis with T2DM. Methods
: A sample of 2 039 patients with T2DM from a primary care setting, who were free of CVD at beseline (2009−2010) were involved in a retrospective cohort study. Socio-demographic data and traditional risk factor assessments at the baseline were retrieved from medical records, after which the first CVD outcomes (coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease) were traced from the baseline to December 2015, with a median follow-up period of 5.6 years. Results:
The overall cumulative incidence of CVD was 9.4% with an incidence density of 17.6 per 1000 person-years. Prevalence of poor glycemic control, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, albuminuria, and current smoking were 40.0%, 56.3%, 39.0%, 77.3%, 18.7%, and 7.8%, respectively. The univariate survival analysis showed a significant association between CVD and the following factors: age, diabetes duration, body mass index, glycemic control, hypertension, total serum cholesterol, and albuminuria. Conclusions:
This study revealed high incidence of CVD and high prevalence of its traditional risk factors among Omanis with T2DM. In addition, compared to global studies, important differences in the prevalence of some risk factors and their patterns in the univariate association with the cardiovascular outcome have been observed.
Keywords: Incidence; Risk Factors; Cardiovascular Disease; Coronary Heart Disease; Stroke; Type 2 Diabetes; Oman.