• Welcome to the online home of the Oman Medical Journal offering free access and publishing to all authors and researchers 

    Welcome from the Editor-in-Chief

     
    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, BSc, MSc, MS, PhD

    Welcome to the home of the Oman Medical Journal. The OMJ was established in 1984 and has been published under the Oman Medical Specialty Board since 2007. Initially, we started with one issue a year, which later increased to four and then to six in 2011. We currently publish over 100 articles a year covering all aspects of medicine and healthcare. These are selected by our committed and multi-disciplinary Editorial Board.

    We take a no barriers approach to publishing and are proud to offer the journal free to all those who wish to read it and charge no publication fees to authors/researchers. We publish a wide range of articles, including original research, case reports, and preliminary studies. We also publish editorials and letters intended to inform and spark debate about key medical issues. We do this to complement OMSB’s mission to provide quality healthcare through quality medical education. As part of this commitment, we are listed and indexed in over 35 databases, and this number continues to grow.

    We have added some exciting new features to this website. We now offer our authors and readers the opportunity to access articles before they are published in print with our Ahead-of-Print facility. Readers will also be able to earn CME credits by completing Clinical Quizzes published in each issue.

    On behalf of the entire OMJ team, thank you for visiting the online home of the OMJ. We hope you will find this site to be a helpful resource. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions, concerns, or comments you have.

    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani

    Articles and Issues

     

    Most Viewed Articles

    The most viewed articles from the OMJ.
    Volume 25, Issue 4 October 2010
    Peri-mortem Cesarean Delivery... A Reality not Fiction

    Roshina A. Khan

       
     
     
     

    Peri-mortem Cesarean Delivery... A Reality not Fiction

     
     

    Roshina A. Khan

     
     

     

    doi:10.5001/omj.2010.98

     
     
     
     

    ABSTRACT

    Antepartum hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of mortality around the world. It can result in hypovolemic shock leading to circulatory arrest during pregnancy. A well planned strategy is required for its management in all hospitals. To deliver a woman in this situation is a dilemma which needs very prompt decision and a swift speedy action. Not only the woman’s life is in danger, the fetus is also at risk and urgent delivery may be life saving for both mother and the fetus. All obstetricians should be trained to deal with such situation with full understanding and awareness of the condition.

    From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibri Regional Referral Hospital, Ibri, Sultanate of Oman.

    Received: 17 Jul 2010

    Accepted: 21 Aug 2010

    Address correspondence and reprint request to:  Dr. Roshina A. Khan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibri Regional Referral Hospital, Ibri, Sultanate of Oman.

    Email: roshinak@hotmail.com; tipuu@omantel.net.om

     
     
     
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
    Article history:

    Volume 28, Issue 5 September 2013
    Mucinous Breast Cancer with Solitary Metastasis to Humeral Head: A Case Report

    Adil Aljarrah, Maryam Al-Hashmi, Kamran Ahmad Malik, Sawhney Sukhpal, Samir Hussein, Marwa Al-Riyami, Mansour Al-Moundhri

     

    Mucinous Breast Cancer with Solitary Metastasis to Humeral Head: A Case Report

     
     

    Adil Aljarrah,1* Maryam Al-Hashmi,1 Kamran Ahmad Malik,1 Sawhney Sukhpal,2 Samir Hussein,2 Marwa Al-Riyami,3 and Mansour Al-Moundhri4

     
      DOI 10.5001/omj.2013.100  
     
     
     
    1Breast Unit, Department of Surgery, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Al-Khoud, P.O. Box 912, PC 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
    2Breast Unit, Department of Radiology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Al-Khoud, P.O. Box 912, PC 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
    3Breast Unit, Department of Pathology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Al-Khoud, P.O. Box 912, PC 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
    4Breast Unit, Department of Medicine, Oncology, Qaboos University Hospital, Al-Khoud, P.O. Box 912, PC 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

    Received: 18 Jul 2013
    Accepted: 16 Aug 2013

    *Address correspondence and reprints request to: Adil Aljarrah, Breast Unit, Department of Surgery, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Al-Khoud, P.O. Box 912, PC 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
    E-mail: aljarrah.adil@gmail.com or adilm@squ.edu.om
     
     
     
     

    Abstract

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of metastatic deposits in the skeleton, and bone is the most common site of recurrence of breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis most commonly affects the spine, ribs, pelvis, and proximal long bones; however, only 3.5% of breast cancer patients develop long-bone metastases. The humerus is the most common upper-extremity site for bony metastasis, and pathologic fractures can result. The patient in the current study presented with breast cancer and discovered to have humeral head metastasis during initial workup. The dilemma was in investigation the modality to confirm humeral head metastasis as there are many differential diagnoses with similar findings. After staging workup, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy and radiotherapy of the chest wall and the shoulder. The lesion in humerus was well healed.

    Keywords: Mucinous breast cancer; Solitary humeral bone metastases; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy-radiotherapy.


     
    Article history:

    Volume 27, Issue 2 March 2012
    A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    Leo F. Tauro, Geover J. Lobo, Hilda Fernandes, Celine George, P. Sathyamoorthy Aithala, Divakar Shenoy, Prathvi Shetty

         
      A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules  
         
      Leo F. Tauro,1 Geover J. Lobo,1 Hilda Fernandes,2 Celine George,1 P. Sathyamoorthy Aithala,1 Divakar Shenoy,1 Prathvi Shetty1  
      DOI 10.5001/omj.2012.31  
     
     
     
    1Department of Surgery, Fr. Muller Medical College Hospital, Kankanady, Mangalore-2, Karnataka. India.
    2Department of Pathology, Fr. Muller Medical College Hospital, Kankanady, Mangalore-2, Karnataka. India.

    Received: 24 Nov 2011
    Accepted: 18 Jan 2012

    Address correspondence and reprints request to: Leo F. Tauro, Professor, Department of Surgery, Fr. Muller Medical College Hospital, Kankanady, Mangalore-2, Karnataka. India.
    E-mail: drlftauro@rediffmail.com
     
     
     
     

    Abstract 

    Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA) is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC) is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis.

    Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College Hospital from May 2006 to April 2008. The patients with thyroid nodules (diagnosed by palpation) were subjected to both the cytological techniques; FNA and FNC. The specimen and results were compared and then correlated with the final histopathological findings wherever surgical specimens were available (38 cases).

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.16 with a female predominance. The majority of cases were diagnosed to have nodular goiters. The FNC technique yielded 88% diagnostic superiority and adequate specimens compared to 94% by FNA. Sensitivity was 50% for FNC and 100% for FNA while specificity was 100% for both techniques; accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in predicting malignancy. While sensitivity was 75% for FNC and 100% for FNA; specificity was 100% for both techniques, and accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in the prediction of neoplasia.

    Conclusion: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two techniques; if done in tandem can give better and accurate cytological diagnosis. In highly cellular lesions, in which abundant material was obtained, FNC was more likely to be diagnostically superior, but FNA can diagnose most of the lesions. In less cellular lesions, FNA is more likely to be diagnostically superior to FNC.


     
    Article history:

    Volume 26, Issue 4 July 2011
    Spontaneous Rupture of Umbilical Hernia in Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Adamu Ahmed, Garba Stephen, Yahaya Ukwenya

     

    Spontaneous Rupture of Umbilical Hernia in Pregnancy: A Case Report

     
     

    Adamu Ahmed, Garba Stephen, Yahaya Ukwenya

     
      DOI 10.5001/omj.2011.70  
     
     
     
    Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria Nigeria.

    Received: 18 May 2011
    Accepted: 07 Jul 2011

    *Address correspondence and reprints request to: Dr. Adamu Ahmed, Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria Nigeria. Email: mrahmed1010@yahoo.com
     
     
     
     

    Abstract

    A 28 year old woman presented with a spontaneous rupture of an umbilical hernia in her seventh month of pregnancy. She had four previous unsupervised normal deliveries. There was no history of trauma or application of herbal medicine on the hernia. The hernia sac ruptured at the inferior surface where it was attached to the ulcerated and damaged overlying skin. There was a gangrenous eviscerated small bowel. The patient was resuscitated and the gangrenous small bowel was resected and end to end anastomosis done. The hernia sac was excised and the 12 cm defect repaired. Six weeks later, she had spontaneous vaginal delivery of a live baby. We advocate that large umbilical hernias should be routinely repaired when seen in women of child bearing age.


     

     

     
         
         
    Article history:

    Volume 27, Issue 4 July 2012
    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba, Olusegun A. Obateru, Lateefat B. Olokoba

     

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

     
     

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba,1* Olusegun A. Obateru,2 Lateefat B. Olokoba3

     
      DOI 10.5001/omj.2012.68  
     
     
     
    1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.
    2Department of Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria.
    3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Received: 10 Mar 2012
    Accepted: 08 May 2012

    *Address correspondence and reprints request to: Abdulfatai B. Olokoba, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.
    E-mail: drabolokoba@yahoo.com
     
     
     
     

    Abstract

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

    Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Diagnosis; Management; Newer drugs.

     

     
    Article history:

    Volume 28, Issue 5 September 2013
    Intraoperative Assessment of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patency

    Senol Yavuz

    Article history:

    Volume 27, Issue 2 March 2012
    What else could it be? History - quintessential forever!

    Chepsy Cherian Philip, Vipin Badhan

    Article history:

    Volume 30, Issue 2 March 2015
    Understanding the Concept of Brain Death in the Middle East

    Abdul Hakeem Al-Hashim, Mujahid Al-Busaidi, Mujahid Al-Busaidi

    Article history:

    Volume 27, Issue 4 July 2012
    Rose of Jericho: A Word of Caution

    Jumana Saleh, Lovina Machado

    Article history:

    For Authors

    The Oman Medical Journal accepts manuscript submissions through an external website, Editorial Manager.  

    The Journal has specific instructions and guidelines for submitting articles. Please read and review them carefully. Articles that are not submitted in accordance with our instructions and guidelines are more likely to be rejected.

    About OMJ

     
    Aims and scope
    Oman Medical Journal is an Open Access International Journal, which intends to engage and inform doctors, researchers and other health professionals by publishing a wide range of peer-reviewed articles. Our background is solidly grounded in publishing a high degree of articles covering all aspects of medicine.
    Information for subscribers
    Oman Medical Journal is published six times a year by Oman Medical Specialty Board. It is distributed free to all medical doctors and allied health professionals in various institutions locally and internationally.

    Charges: There is no charges for submission, publication, and subscription.
    Authorship criteria
    Each author must contribute a significant segment and should take responsibility for the content and authenticity of the work as a whole. Authors must complete an Authorship form clearly stating their responsibilities, contribution and financial sources. Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email.
    Abstracting and indexing services
    The journal is listed in PubMed and PubMed Central, and indexed in Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Google Scholar, CrossRef, Index Copernicus, CINAHL, DOAJ, Global Health, Academic OneFile, Academic Science in Context, Academic Journals Database, CAB Abstracts, CABI Publishing, Chemical Abstracts, Cornell University Library, EBSCO Publishing Electronic Database, Embase, Electronic Journals Library (EZB), Expanded Academic ASAP, Genamics JournalSeek, Gale and Open J-Gate, GFMER, Health Reference Center, ICMJE, Newjour, SCIRUS, SCImago Journal & Country Rank, Scopus, Summon by Serial Solution, The John Rylands Library, UlrichsWeb Directory.

    Ethical considerations
    In all experiments and studies on humans or animals, authors must state whether formal approval from an Institutional Review Board or Ethics Committee was obtained in the Methods section of the manuscript. In the absence of such committee, the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines must be followed and be clearly stated. All studies on human subjects must include a statement that the subjects gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped to prevent human subjects being recognized. Experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and should conform to national guidelines for animal usage in research.
    Copyright and photocopying
    Open access agreement: Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Oman Medical Specialty Board. This open access journal is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License (CC-BY-NC), permitting non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Editor-in-Chief
    Dr. Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman
    Associate Editors

    Dr. Abdulaziz Al-Mahrezi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Murtadha Al-Khabori, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Statistics Editor
    Dr. Abdullah Al-Maniri, Oman Medical Speciality Board, Oman
    Editorial Board Members

    Prof. Samir Al-Adawi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Prof. Yasser Wali, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Abdullah Al-Mujaini, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Adhra Al-Maawali, Ministry of Health, Oman

    Dr. Ahmed Al-Hashmi, Al-Nahdha Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Ahmed Al-Jahwari, Armed Forces Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Ahmed Al-Waily, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Faryal Al-Lawati, Royal Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Hatem Al-Lawati, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Khalid Al-Thuhli, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    Dr. Khalid Al-Rasadi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Khamis Al-Hashmi, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    Dr. Khulood Al-Maamari, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Marwa Al-Riyami, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Mujahid Al-Busaidi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Nihal Al-Riyami, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Rahma Al-Kindi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Rashid Al-Abri, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Saif Al-Yaarubi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Saud Al-Shabibi, Royal Hospital, Oman

    Editorial Office
    Medical Editor
    Dr. Ayshe Ismail
    Editorial Assistants
    Ms. Bishara Al-Mahruqi
    Mrs. Jenny Manoguid
    Mrs. Charie Ricafort
    Ms. Rabha Al-Abdulsalaam
    Mrs. Iman Al-Busaidi
    Technical Editor/Web Designer
    Mr. Amir Hussain
    Board Members
    Prof. A G Pusalkar, Lilaviti Hospital, India
    Prof. Dimitri Mikhailidis, University College London, United Kingdom
    Prof. Gordon Ferns, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
    Prof. Kichu Nair, University of South Wales, United Kingdom
    Prof. Thomas Walsh, Yale University, United States
    Prof. Walter Rosser, Queens University, Canada
    Prof. Dirk Deleu, Weil Cornell Medical College, Qatar
    Prof. Kichu Nair, University of Newcastle, Australia
    Dr. Amy Young, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
    Dr. Bassem Saab, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon
    Dr. Celia Rodd, McGill University, Canada Dr. Helen Batty, University of Toronto, Canada
    Dr. Kenneth Mattox, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
    Dr. Khalid Al-Jabri, Al Mufraq Hospital, United Arab Emirates
    Dr. Mahfooz Farooqi, National Guard Hospital, Saudi Arabia
    Dr. Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, McGill University, Canada
    Dr. Michael Shevell, McGill University, Canada
    Dr. Murtada Shabrawi, Cairo University, Egypt
    Dr. Mustafa Afifi, Ministry of Health, United Arab Emirates
    Dr. Thomas Harle, Wake Forest University Medical School, United States
    The OMJ expects that the articles it publishes will not have been published or released elsewhere before they are published in the OMJ. This allows time for the independent peer review of scientific findings before it is available to the public and protects the originality of content. Authors should also not release the details of their findings to the mass media before their work can is peer reviewed and published.
    All articles are immediately available for free online at omjournal.org.
    The OMJ uses a peer-review process to evaluate manuscripts for scientific accuracy, novelty, and importance. The careful editing process often requires extensive revisions and assures detailed checking for accuracy. Authors will be responsible for checking the accuracy of the final edit.

    All submitted manuscripts are read by the Editor-in-chief and at least one other board member. Only those papers that seem most likely to meet our editorial criteria are sent for formal review. Those papers judged by the Board Members to be of insufficient general interest or otherwise inappropriate are rejected without external review.

    Manuscripts judged to be of potential interest to our readership are sent for formal review, typically to two or three reviewers. The editors then make a decision based on the reviewers' advice, from several possibilities:

    • Accept for publication without alteration.
    • Accept after revision/extensive revision. Authors are invited to revise their manuscript to address specific concerns before a final decision is reached.
    • Reject, but indicate to the authors that further work might justify a resubmission.
    • Reject outright, typically on grounds of relevance, lack of novelty, or major technical and/or interpretational problems.
    Reviewers are welcome to recommend a particular course of action, but they will be considered along with other reviewers who may have different technical expertise and/or views. Typically, the Board Members make decisions based on conflicting advice and their understanding of the research. It can be the case that we do not always follow the recommendations of reviewers. We do not send details of the final decision to reviewers.

    In cases where the authors have been asked to revise their manuscript, we may return to reviewers for a second review. When reviewers agree to assess a paper, we consider this commitment to review subsequent revisions.

    We do not edit reviewers' reports; any comments that were intended for the authors are transmitted. Therefore, we asked that reviewers remain respectful in their comments avoiding statements that may cause needless offense.
    Manuscripts will be edited for brevity, clarity, grammar, spelling, and style. When the editing is extensive, with the possibility of altered meaning, queries are sent to the corresponding author by email. When a manuscript has been edited and prepared for publication, these will be sent to the author along with any final queries from the Copy Editor. Authors are expected to check the proof carefully, paying particular attention to the accuracy of equations, tables, illustrations, other numerical matter and references (which have been corrected for style but not checked for accuracy, which remains the responsibility of the author), and answer any queries. With page proofs, we request that the authors make the fewest possible alterations other than corrections of errors, and wherever a change is essential, only substituting as few words as possible occupying an approximately equal amount of space. If no corrections are received, the Editors reserve the right to correct the proof themselves. Equally, the Editors reserve the right to dismiss any changes that do not follow OMJ style or introduce errors in language. Corrections are generally not made to a manuscript once it has been published unless there is a significant error.
    The Editorial Board is a group of individuals committed to helping the OMJ produce an excellent multidisciplinary scientific publication of the highest quality. The publisher/editor-in-chief appoint editorial Board members. The editorial board is made up of an interdisciplinary mix from a wide range of disciplines. The main responsibilities of editorial board members are to provide strategic and operational advice (unsolicited, as well as in editorial board meetings) and to guide papers in their area of expertise through the peer-review process.

    Any manuscript submitted by an Editorial Board member will be treated in the same manner as any other manuscripts with both the Editorial Board member and reviewers blinded to one another in the review process.
    Material submitted to the OMJ journals must not be discussed with the media, except in the case of accepted contributions, which can be discussed with the media only once published. Authors that are contacted by the media about any OMJ should ask that the OMJ is credited in any news stories.
    The OMJ Editorial Board and publication staff keep all information about a submitted manuscript confidential and limited to those involved in the evaluation, review and publication process. The OMJ used a double-blind review process so that authors’ names and affiliations are not revealed to reviewers nor are reviewers’ names revealed to authors. Only information on accepted articles is archived for future reference.
    It is the responsibility of every person listed as an author of an article published in OMJ to have contributed in a meaningful and identifiable way to the design, performance, analysis, and reporting of the work, and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Authors must complete an authorship form clearly stating their responsibilities, contribution, and financial sources.

    According to the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), as revised in 2013, authorship credit should be based on the following 4 criteria: 

    • substantial contributions to conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and
    • drafting of the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
    • final approval of the version to be published; and
    • agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged.


    All authors (ie, the corresponding author and each coauthor) must read, complete, and submit an electronic Authorship Form with signed statements on Authorship Responsibility, Criteria, and Contributions and Confirmation of Reporting Conflicts of Interest and Funding.
    ©2015 All rights reserved to Oman Medical Journal. All articles published represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the journal. This open access journal is distributed under the terms of Oman Medical Specialty Board, permitting non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Oman Medical Specialty Board and may not be published elsewhere.
    A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to complete and submit the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest: This form will be requested after a manuscript has been submitted, but authors should also include conflict of interest disclosures in the Disclosure section of the manuscript. Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations. Peer-reviewers are also expected to declare any conflicts of interest as part of their review.
    For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section. Such studies must also be in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised in 2008). For investigations of humans, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (ie, oral or written) and whether participants received a stipend. Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study.
    The OMJ uses the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) definition of scientific misconduct as described below: 

    • Falsifying data: fabrication of data, selective reporting or omission, suppression or distortion of data. 
    • Plagiarism: using the published or unpublished language, ideas or thoughts of another writer without crediting the source and presenting them as one’s own. Plagiarism includes duplicate publication (publication of an article in more than one journal or in another language).
    • Authorship issues: exclusion of involved researchers or inclusion of researchers who have not contributed to the work or publication without permission from all authors. 
    • Violation of generally accepted research practice: including manipulating experiments/statistics to get biased results or improper reporting of results. 
    • Failure to follow legal requirements: violating local regulations and laws involving the use of funds, care of human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices or radioactive, biological or chemical materials.
    •  
    • Inappropriate behavior in cases of misconduct: including false accusations of misconduct; failure to report misconduct; not providing relevant information in a misconduct claim and retaliation against people claiming or investigating misconduct.


    All allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief. Authors will be contacted in writing with any concerns and asked to state their case and explain the circumstances. Until a decision about the manuscript is reached, work on the manuscript will be stopped. The Editor-in-Chief will make a final decision on the handling of the manuscript.

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